Stemolecule™ All-Trans Retinoic Acid

Catalog Size Price Quantity
04-0021 100 mg $63.00
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04-0021 Figure 1

Product Overview

Stemolecule All-Trans Retinoic Acid is the oxidized form of Vitamin A and functions as a signaling molecule for various developmental pathways that control differentiation and proliferation1,2. It acts by binding to heterodimers of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR), which then bind to retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) in the regulatory regions activating gene transcription3. All-Trans Retinoic Acid has been implicated in specification of the embryonic anterior/posterior axis through Hox gene regulation4. It has been used in various differentiation protocols, including B-cells, T cells and neurons and applied clinically to treat cancer as a form of differentiation-induction therapy2,5-11.

Product Specifications


100 mg

Alternate Name

(2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexen-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid

Chemical Formula


Molecular Weight


CAS Number



Greater than 98% by HPLC analysis 


Yellow to light orange crystalline powder


For a 10 mM concentrated stock solution of All-Trans Retinoic Acid, add 1.66 ml of DMSO to 5 mg of the compound. If a precipitate is observed, warm the solution to 37°C for 2 to 5 minutes. For cell culture, the media should be prewarmed prior to adding the reconstituted compound. Note: for most cells, the maximum tolerance to DMSO is less than 0.5%. This molecule is soluble in DMSO at 100 mM and 95% ethanol at 9 mM.

 Storage and Stability

Store powder at 4°C protected from light. Following reconstitution, store aliquots at -20°C. Stock solutions are stable for 6 months when stored as directed. 

Quality Control

The purity of All-Trans Retinoic Acid was determined by HPLC analysis. The accurate mass was determined by mass spectrometry. Cellular toxicity of All-Trans Retinoic Acid was tested on mouse embryonic stem cells. 

Specification Sheets

Safety Data Sheets

Related Products


  1. Duester, G. (2008) Retinoic acid synthesis and signaling during early organogenesis. Cell 134: 921-931.
  2. Ertesvåg, A., Naderi, S., Blomhoff, H.K. (2009) Regulation of B cell proliferation and differentiation by retinoic acid. Semin Immunol 21: 36-41.
  3. Marshall, H., Morrison, A., Studer, M., Pöpperl, H. and Krumlauf, R. (1996) Retinoids and Hox genes. FASEB J 10: 969-978.
  4. Holland, L.Z. (2007) Developmental biology: a chordate with a difference. Nature 447: 153-155.
  5. Yagi, J., Uchida, T., Kuroda, K., and Uchiyama, T. (1997) Influence of retinoic acid on the differentiation pathway of T cells in the thymus. Cell Immunol 181: 153-162.
  6. Dhara, S.K., and Stice, S.L. (2008) Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. J Cell Biochem 105: 633-640.
  7. Sasai, Y. (2002) Generation of dopaminergic neurons from embryonic stem cells. J Neurol 249 Suppl 2: II41-1144.
  8. Takahashi, J., Palmer, T.D., and Gage, F.H. (1999) Retinoic acid and neurotrophins collaborate to regulate neurogenesis in adult-derived neural stem cell cultures. J Neurobiol 38: 65-81.
  9. Wichterle, H., Lieberam, I., Porter, J.A., and Jessell, T.M. (2002) Directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into motor neurons. Cell 110: 385-397.
  10. Collins, S.J. (2008) Retinoic acid receptors, hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. Curr Opin Hematol 15: 346-351.
  11. Mongan, N.P., and Gudas, L.J. (2007) Diverse actions of retinoid receptors in cancer prevention and treatment. Differentiation 75: 853-870.

Additional Publications

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